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Baronakim

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About Baronakim

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    Whistle-Stop
  • Birthday 05/04/1947

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    Columbia TN
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    Medieval reenactment society, gardening, prospecting, books, books & more books.

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  1. There is no such thing as a "steel core" for an elevator in a high rise building and as such adds no additional steel to the structural frame; nor would it be visible, as it does not exist. I suggest you read my posting on elevators and steel framing commonly utilized in towers. You will find it in the Broadwest topic. Any diagonal steel framing in this project is required for resisting moment, not for any reason of constructing an elevator shaft. if diagonal bracing occurs at the opening of the shaft, it is merely a coincidence that the particular steel members occur at the location of the elevators. And lastly, is there some peculiar reason this project is in the Gulch Projects? Post addendum: As it seems several have missed my brief course in shaft construction posted in Broadwest, I am inserting it here as it is as good a place to repost as any. OK, I've lurked enough on this fascinating string of posts about the "missing" Elevator shafts, so I will give an architectural discourse on shaft construction methods. I address methods which are suitable for the type of construction at Broadwest as poured concrete cores or masonry cores are typically constructed independently of the floor construction. We see the slip form concrete core at the Amazon tower and the masonry cores typically on low to midrise structures as we see a lot on apartment buildings here in Nashville. Specifically in the Broadwest office tower of which many of you are freaking over, Bos2Nash posted very clear floor plans which clearly show SEVEN major floor penetrations which will be protected with a 2 hour U.L. (or equivalent testing authority) fire rating. There is no such thing as "thick fireproof drywall" per se. "Drywall" is a Brand of gypsum wall board as is "Sheetrock"; both are misused and must be carefully worded in specifications unless for some obscure reason you would call for a proprietary specification. In the past these openings were almost universally enclosed with a shaftwall system which consisted of a base runner (J-runner profile), studs (CH-stud profile intermediates and an E-s tud at openings and ends of runs). In the case of a mechanical shaft, the H part is to receive a 1" thick liner board so the "H" part is much less deep than the"C" profile. The total depth of the studs vary with the height of the span of the wall, from 2.5" to 10" or more. The I" liner is slipped into the frame created for it and Is NOT sealed, taped or otherwise fastened. Then, on the occupied space face, for a 2 hour rating, two layers of 5/8" type X gypsum board (fire rated board) are attached with screws. Lapping of the layers is assiduously called out for lapping of joints and details for taping joints are followed and a finish is applied over this. INSIDE this shaft is this loosely applied liner board as scaffolding cannot or would not be used typically due to inaccessibility or costs. This covers simple mechanical shafts and elevator cores. What about stairs? Stairs typically have finished interiors, so the 2 layers of gypsum board can face inside of the stair and a second ordinary stud wall (*which has no part in the fire rating and only goes to 4" above the finished ceiling plane) is used to protect the liner board. Electric outlets and other recessed items go in this unrated wall. There is an approved alternate for stairwells in which the liner board is to the inside of the stair and one of the two layers of 5/8" board covers it and only one layer is on the occupied space side. Any penetrations (if allowed by code) from the occupied side must be "box" protected. Whew. This only covers the most basic applications. One of the procedures that I have fought for is to abandon the automatic assumption that shaftwall systems such as these are best solutions. Shaftwall systems are certainly more cost effective to use where the floor to floor height is between 10 to 12 feet as you can get the liner board in those lengths. If the height is more, there it extra horizontal joint and heavier gauge or depth studs adversely impacts the costs of this system. As an architect designing hospitals, I regularly had 14+ floor to floors, so I abandoned shaftwall systems in stairs and other instances, using shaftwall only where unavoidable. I "value-engineered" a major hospital stair system and saved over $250,000 in the budget. Many architects fail to consider alternates to the shaftwall solution including it from habit. Why did I challenge this practice? A simple 2 hour rated wall system consisting of a normal wall stud and 2 layers of type X board on both sides is hugely more cost effective than shaftwall. Care of lapping joint placement is still a requirement, but the inside of the shaft or stairwells require finish surfaces, so abandoning the liner board and special stud profiles affords a great cost savings, especially when floor to floor heights grow. Penetrations on the occupied side can be resolved with the same furred wall or boxed outlet solutions as with shaftwall. In this specific design, the lower floor to floor height of office occupancies, I would assume conventional shaftwall systems will be used as described above, though in the higher floor to floor spaces , more cost effective assemblies could be utilized. I have no idea whether the contractors or the architects have considered possible savings as the automatic usage of shaftwall is so ingrained in the industry. This post only covers some of the most basic variables. In the Broadwest floor penetrations, there are 3 elevator cores 2 stairwells and 2 large mechanical shaft openings. Please be aware that any plumbing risers will only be in the 2 mechanical floor openings. Codes do not allow plumbing in stairways or their walls. Also the elevator openings are clearly for 3 elevators, so an additional fire rated wall must be provided on one of the 4" wide spreader beams for the elevators as the evevator codes only allow a maximum of 2 elevators in a rated shaft enclosure. All those movie elevator scenes like in "Diehard" are pure bullcrap. The duct openings at each floor and all the light fixtures are Hollywood bogus carp. Likewise the open unenclosed elevators in "Mr. & Mrs. Smith" are ridiculously staged too. I hope this short course in shaftwall uses has enlightened those of you not in the building trades.
  2. Smeagol, there have been several posts about Nashville downtown needs more cool lighting on buildings. But I don't think this is what we had in mind. Did Mayor Cooper move into the Batman?
  3. While I agree that a Holiday Inn Express replacing these is an abominable tragedy, I still was compelled to post a reply in very , very confrontational Historic Nashville exchange. I don't know how I ended up there, but the fervour of the folks against ANY further demolition of old buildings in Nashville compelled me to add my opinion. As my response was initiated by the proposal for these apartments, here is what I replied..... Allison Lund " Kyle O'Connor please show me in this city where any old building has been saved" Well, I'm an architect (for 50 years) and the first example is the Lee apartments right next to these apartments. Secondly almost ALL of Second Avenue. Yes, the tearing down of these apartments is disappointing to say the least, but updating them for contemporary fire safety and handicap accessibility, to not even adequate parking is not viable from either a cost or design analysis. Where were you when the really historic Governor's Mansion (now Caterpillar) on West End was demolished (at night) for a G...D Popeye's? Now if the fine Gothic church next door was on the hit list, I would be in there fighting. It is painful that that particular block of Elliston is being chewed up, but the value longtime Nashvillians have for it was NOT the buildings, but for the businesses that were there. Tony G. is in process of saving the soda shop and the Goldrush is now a memory. The delightful Old English Pub is long gone and so is Elder's Books. The businesses that replaced them are IMO pretty crappy. These older structures, especially the one stories are doomed whether you like it or not as Nashville grows into a vibrant metropolitan city. Would you rather save everytrhing older than 50 years old and have the city sprawl for 10 miles in every direction? I wouldn't. I for one don't miss the rotting warehouses of the Gulch, the no man's land that was McGavock and Demonbreum, or the sea of surface parking lots everywhere in the core. I am 72 years old and am excited to see the vitality of this city. I remember the huge demolition of city BLOCKS in this city back in the 60s & 70s and I am sure that many commenting on this post would moan and bewail the loss of them too. Old buildings are great IF they are in repair, compliance and usefully OCCUPIED. Are you upset with the demolition of the soviet block dorms on West End now? I worked for the firm that designed them at the time they were built and even the principal architects (Street & Street) thought they were horrendous, but Vanderbilt U wanted cheap. Thank heavens it has come to its senses and is replacing them with beautiful new structures. On that subject, the dorms they built at 21st & West End replaced ones designed by an internationally renowned architect. Tell me, would your architect husband really have wanted to save those boring Edward Durell Stone dorms just because some folks though they were historic? Nashville is on the way to becoming a great city and avoiding a lot of the flaws of Atlanta. We can't save everything just because it is old. CHERISH THE MEMORIES BUT LIVE IN THE NOW.
  4. OK, I've lurked enough on this fascinating string of posts about the "missing" Elevator shafts, so I will give an architectural discourse on shaft construction methods. I address methods which are suitable for the type of construction at Broadwest as poured concrete cores or masonry cores are typically constructed independently of the floor construction. We see the slip form concrete core at the Amazon tower and the masonry cores typically on low to midrise structures as we see a lot on apartment buildings here in Nashville. Specifically in the Broadwest office tower of which many of you are freaking over, Bos2Nash posted very clear floor plans which clearly show SEVEN major floor penetrations which will be protected with a 2 hour U.L. (or equivalent testing authority) fire rating. There is no such thing as "thick fireproof drywall" per se. "Drywall" is a Brand of gypsum wall board as is "Sheetrock"; both are misused and must be carefully worded in specifications unless for some obscure reason you would call for a proprietary specification. In the past these openings were almost universally enclosed with a shaftwall system which consisted of a base runner (J-runner profile), studs (CH-stud profile intermediates and an E-s tud at openings and ends of runs). In the case of a mechanical shaft, the H part is to receive a 1" thick liner board so the "H" part is much less deep than the"C" profile. The total depth of the studs vary with the height of the span of the wall, from 2.5" to 10" or more. The I" liner is slipped into the frame created for it and Is NOT sealed, taped or otherwise fastened. Then, on the occupied space face, for a 2 hour rating, two layers of 5/8" type X gypsum board (fire rated board) are attached with screws. Lapping of the layers is assiduously called out for lapping of joints and details for taping joints are followed and a finish is applied over this. INSIDE this shaft is this loosely applied liner board as scaffolding cannot or would not be used typically due to inaccessibility or costs. This covers simple mechanical shafts and elevator cores. What about stairs? Stairs typically have finished interiors, so the 2 layers of gypsum board can face inside of the stair and a second ordinary stud wall (*which has no part in the fire rating and only goes to 4" above the finished ceiling plane) is used to protect the liner board. Electric outlets and other recessed items go in this unrated wall. There is an approved alternate for stairwells in which the liner board is to the inside of the stair and one of the two layers of 5/8" board covers it and only one layer is on the occupied space side. Any penetrations (if allowed by code) from the occupied side must be "box" protected. Whew. This only covers the most basic applications. One of the procedures that I have fought for is to abandon the automatic assumption that shaftwall systems such as these are best solutions. Shaftwall systems are certainly more cost effective to use where the floor to floor height is between 10 to 12 feet as you can get the liner board in those lengths. If the height is more, there it extra horizontal joint and heavier gauge or depth studs adversely impacts the costs of this system. As an architect designing hospitals, I regularly had 14+ floor to floors, so I abandoned shaftwall systems in stairs and other instances, using shaftwall only where unavoidable. I "value-engineered" a major hospital stair system and saved over $250,000 in the budget. Many architects fail to consider alternates to the shaftwall solution including it from habit. Why did I challenge this practice? A simple 2 hour rated wall system consisting of a normal wall stud and 2 layers of type X board on both sides is hugely more cost effective than shaftwall. Care of lapping joint placement is still a requirement, but the inside of the shaft or stairwells require finish surfaces, so abandoning the liner board and special stud profiles affords a great cost savings, especially when floor to floor heights grow. Penetrations on the occupied side can be resolved with the same furred wall or boxed outlet solutions as with shaftwall. In this specific design, the lower floor to floor height of office occupancies, I would assume conventional shaftwall systems will be used as described above, though in the higher floor to floor spaces , more cost effective assemblies could be utilized. I have no idea whether the contractors or the architects have considered possible savings as the automatic usage of shaftwall is so ingrained in the industry. This post only covers some of the most basic variables. In the Broadwest floor penetrations, there are 3 elevator cores 2 stairwells and 2 large mechanical shaft openings. Please be aware that any plumbing risers will only be in the 2 mechanical floor openings. Codes do not allow plumbing in stairways or their walls. Also the elevator openings are clearly for 3 elevators, so an additional fire rated wall must be provided on one of the 4" wide spreader beams for the elevators as the evevator codes only allow a maximum of 2 elevators in a rated shaft enclosure. All those movie elevator scenes like in "Diehard" are pure bullcrap. The duct openings at each floor and all the light fixtures are Hollywood bogus carp. Likewise the open unenclosed elevators in "Mr. & Mrs. Smith" are ridiculously staged too. I hope this short course in shaftwall uses has enlightened those of you not in the building trades.
  5. While I was in town today, I thought I might as well take a look at progress in the Rutledge Hill area. The apartments at 3rd & Ash are just finishing up and actually look much better than I expected with the dark brown exterior. Could have been worse. The view from City Lights gives a good vantage for the Drury and downtown as well as the 9 story accross 1st Avene. Enjoy
  6. Had to stop by my old office today at Gulch Crossing and took advantage of the view from the 8th floor. Lots has built up since last time back I took pics in July. Y'all should have no trouble identifying these as we have been following them all since last year. Enjoy. Incidentally, I recall a comment about elevator shafts missing....was it Broasdwest? Well, as you can clearly see from the views of the Amazon tower, the central core is rising as a concrete core. You see this most often on steel framed towers as it provides shear resistance. Otherwise, there would have to be diagonals in the moment frames....not desirable in tenant spaces, especially on exterior framing. The concrete framing at Broadwest eliminates the need as the concrete frame provides adequate shear strength itself. The stairs and elevator shafts will be more economically enclosed in 2 hour rated stud wall enclosures...shaft walls or conventional 2 hour stud walls. Much more cost effective.
  7. Took a little hike after the meeting today. These views might be some not seen very often on the thread. It seems to me that if CSX reduces to 2 lines, this area here between the tracks and the Greenway from Church to Charlotte represents a large linear tract of land that needs to be developed into that downtown park we talked about today. Combined with the Greenway tract, it becomes more substantial in width. Maybe some ramping access from the level of Church off the viaduct could open up access to it . Alternately, the whole tract could be excavated down to the level of 11th and have a huge parking structure....maybe 5 or 6 levels be constructed under a raised plaza style park at the level of Church.
  8. HAD TROUBLE LOADING PHOTOS. IF THERE ARE VACANT GAPS BETWEEN, KEEP SCROLLING. THANKS, BARONAKIM Of all the great things we post about Nashville, its old buildings, its new towers and its rocketing growth, one single factor seldom gets the credit that is due. Without it, Nashville would certainly be much different today...if Nashville existed here at all. Throughout our city's history, our growth and commerce stems from the river and its bridges. It is the single most important element in both the old and our new city's development. THE RIVER Even before the founding of Nashville, the principal avenue to reach into the wilderness was always the Cumberland River. Jacques-Timothée Boucher, Sieur de Montbrun (23 March 1731 – October 1826), anglicized as Timothy Demonbreun, a French-Canadian fur trader, is acknowledged as the first white man to set foot on the future site of Nashville. While hunting, Demonbreun noticed a large number of game animals at a salt lick, later known as French Lick and eventually, Sulphur Dell. Living in a cave in the rive bluff until he built a rude a cabin near the river as his home base for fur trapping. . When James Robertson and the Watauga settlers established Fort Nashborough in 1778, they were both surprised and relieved to find that Demonbreun, a white man, was thriving there. Their fortification was on what was called Front Street just north of where the riverbanks allowed good landing. Fort Nashborough backed up on the edge the higher river bluff to only have three sides to defend against hostiles instead of four. River rafts and boats remained vital for the settlement but by the 1800, it was obvious that having to cross the river on boats to reach the east bank was inconvenient, due to increased traffic, the obvious answer was to build a bridge. The plan of the first bridge across the Cumberland River was proposed by the citizens of Nashville in 1818. From the 1819 construction contract and descriptions of the structure published in newspapers of the time, we know much about this first bridge. From descriptions "The superstructure consisted of three wooden arch spans, each 187’ long, for a total length of approximately 560’. The bridge was 40’ wide, contained two carriageways and two footways, and was supported by three stone piers and two abutments that stood as high as 80’ above low water." Erected just downstream from where the present Victory Memorial Bridge is located, at the northeast corner of the Square across to Main Street, it opened in June of 1823. The covered bridge had windows along the sides to provide light. When it was built water craft was small and the structure was only 75 feet above the low water mark. In the late 1830's thousands of Cherokees crossed this bridge on the Trail of Tears. By the mid-nineteenth century, the new generation of steamboats was too tall to pass under the bridge, so in 1850 the first Woodland Street Bridge was built to replace it and allow steamboats to get to the new wharf at the Front Street landings. The new bridge, a suspension bridge, was high enough to allow steamboats to pass underneath uninhibited and the 1823 Nashville Toll Bridge was demolished in 1850. All traces of the bridge were dismantled and removed, or fell into the river and sunk to the bottom of the channel, except, that is, for its massive stone abutments. Recently the surviving old stonework of the embankment buttresses was cleaned up and recognized by historians as the ruins of the first bridge over the Cumberland in Nashville. It is under the Victory Memorial bridge constructed in 1955. The first 7 photos illustrate the earliest Nashville bridge. The next 8 photos show the constuction of and the finished suspension bridge over the Cumberland. In them clearly seen is the first new neighborhood, Edgefield on the east banks. The view of the steamboat landings at the foot of Broad Street is from 1873. In the last view of the suspension bridge, which is a drawing, the first railroad bridge across the river is seen. Note: more about the railroad bridges will be covered later in this post. The suspension bridge was replaced by a double width steel truss bridge, the Woodland Street Bridge, in 1886 which was build beside it. 10 photos show this bridge under construction, and in use through the 1950s. As I child, I often crossed this bridge with my grandfather either picking up my grandmother at Cain-Sloan or going to the Courthouse Square on Saturday for the farmer's market day. Even in the 1950s, farmers still brought their goods with horse drawn wagons mixed with the 1940s pickup trucks. Note in the photos that Victorian mercantile buildings still were on the riverbanks at the square; Gay Street under the bridges and the small amphitheater did not yet exist. They were demolished in the 70s. The photos of the steamboats landing are 1900 and 1906 respectively. In the 1906 view, the suspension bridge is partially demolished; the view of the Victorian buildings on the square probably dates from 1907 as new foundations for buildings are being laid where the suspension bridge was demolished. Bridges in the first decade of the 20th century changed a great deal of the access to the east banks. In 1908, the Sparkman Street Bridge construction began by the Nashville Barge Company which was founded in the 1890s. Adjacent to the new bridge, the firm built its headquarters on the banks of the Cumberland River, a six-story office building which remains today. It can be seen in the two photos of the new bridge over a Cumberland River in full flood. It is interesting to see the flooded east bank where the Titian stadium would be built and before the industrialization seen in the following photo in the 1960s. By then the name of the bridge had been changed to the Shelby Street bridge, but days were numbered for the aging industrial facilities. By the 1980s, the east bank was an industrial slum. The barge building operations moved to Ashland City downstream in the 1990s allowing for construction of the new stadium for the Titians and with it, a new bridge for the city. The Shelby Street Bridge was completely rebuilt as the Siegenthaler Pedestrian Bridge The next 2 photos show another bridge built The old six story building was completely remodeled as a venue for weddings, private dinners and events. It is now known as the Bridge Building and the riverfront has become a popular park and river landing area for private boats. In the next 2 photos, another new bridge can be seen, the Jefferson Street Bridge downriver at what is now Germantown. Building began in 1909 of a multiple span steel truss bridge both narrower and higher than the Shelby Street bridge. Both bridges had very long ramped approaches on concrete arches. The Jefferson Bridge was taken down by explosives in 1992 and replaced with a new bridge of modern design similar to that of the Victory Memorial Bridge built in 1957 one block downstream from the Woodland Street Bridge . The following photo shows the completed Victory Memorial Bridge connecting the James Robertson Parkway to Main Street in East Nashville in 1956. The construction of the L&C tower is underway. The new street is on the north side of the Nashville Courthouse; the Victorian buildings seen around the Public Square are soon to be demolished. In the next photo, Mayor Ben West is seen driving dignitaries across the new bridge, The old city hall building at the new bridge would later bear his name as the Ben West Building. The old steel truss span of the Woodland Street Bridge was replaced in the 1970s with a new span matching the Victory Bridge, but retaining the old masonry piers. Both bridges can be seen in the terraced Riverfront Park view taken about 1982. During the 60s and 70s, the interstate highway system loop around the city was constructed with high twin bridges over the Cumberland; this is the Sillman Evans Bridge on the south crossing. A similar set of bridges were built by what became Metro Center downstream on the north part of the loop. The last vehicular bridge to be built in Nashville is the Gateway Bridge in 2004, now a landmark for its distinctive arches and colorful lighting displays that are internationally recognized as in Nashville, Tennessee. The old Shelby Street Bridge was renamed after John Siegenthaler and made a pedestrian only bridge in 2007 connecting downtown to the Nissan Stadium. The city side approach was demolished and shortened by one block making it steeper, but was vital to the new Sobro building boom. The Siegenthaler Bridge was rebuilt with new observation platforms and is brilliantly illuminated at night, both above and below, Together, the two bridges are stunning at night from Lower Broad. The next set of photos shows the old Osburne-Hessey Warehouse that blocked river views from Broadway until it was demolished for Riverfront Park. The building was a massive concrete structure designed to survive the flooding of the river that came all to often before the TVA dams were built upstream. Besides flooding, the river would occasionally freeze over and Nashvillians could walk to the other side or braver ones could drive across. The photos are from 1946 just before I was born, but I remember the next big freeze, the Blizzard of 1951. Returning to the railroad bridges of Nashville, the photo (colorized) taken during the occupation of Nashville in 1862 shows the bridge that replaced the covered railroad bridge seen in the drawing by the suspension bridge. A steel truss bridge replaced this one in the 1890s which was much lower than the vehicular bridges and solved the problem with river traffic by the center span swinging 90 degrees to allow boats to pass thru. This type of railroad bridge was known as a "swing bridge". It is stiil in use today when the river is too high for barges to clear. Of course when steamboats need passage, the swing function is employed. It is interesting that the popular General Jackson steamboat has its smokestacks hinged down flat to pass under. The last photos are technically not downtown, but a a couple of miles upstream at Shelby Bottoms. The elevated railroad trestle and bridge was built by the L&N Railroad in the 1920's to bypass downtown Nashville to Randnor yards which replaced the main yards in what is now the Gulch in Nashville. The elevated high steel trestle runs over Shelby Park Bottoms to cross the Cumberland to Donaldson. The last photo is The Shelby Bottoms Pedestrian Bridge, a suspension walk bridge connecting the Nashville Greenways on both sides of the Cumberland.
  9. Thanks guys for your enthusiasm about my recent posts. Please note that I have added more photos and descriptions in them in the past day or so. This includes the castle (2 new photos), the Arcade, L&C (photo of Victorians torn down), Centennial (more 1897 pics), Theatres and the Maxwell House (more about the fire +photos), so you might enjoy another look. Oh yeah, thanks Smeagol for your fealty...incidentally I am his Excellency Baron Akim Yaroslavich, Baron Glaedenfeld. Feel free to grovel anytime. One more comment about why I am posting these old Nashville subjects. Old buildings in the past were built over the older ones' remains. That is why urban archaeology works and we learn things...ancient Rome...burials...etc.. I post about old Nashville because modern construction removes everything down to the bedrock, leaving no trace of history of the site. Knowledge of this is left to photographs and the web for the most part. It is difficult to track down 99% of what Nashville was like even one lifetime ago and the 1% is often vague and not well understandable unless you you were alive then. A city is more than a collection of its present buildings...it is an amalgamation of those, its past buildings, memories and the interaction among its citizens, past and present. I want to share what I recall, for in a not to distant future, further memories such as these will be inaccessible. Sorry if some of the details might be boring. Here is my next Nashville subject.... BYGONE DOWNTOWN SHOPPING Nashville during the 1950's and early 1960's was quite an experience for kids growing up. The era was before malls, so most Christmas shopping was done downtown as there were not yet even suburban branches of the stores. Downtown Nashville was a madhouse, literally thousands of shoppers walked Church Street in densities which present malls now have wistful dreams. Church Street bustled with shoppers, jostling elbows with all the movie goers and spilled over onto 4th and 5th Avenues. The big downtown stores were Castner-Knott, Harvey's, W.T. Grant's, Cain-Sloan, Woolworth's and Sears-Roebuck. One of the favorite department stores was Harvey's, which had kid friendly activities like the Monkey Bar Diner at lunch time, live monkeys in a cage and an indoor carousel. Mr. Max Lowenstein, a survivor of Buchenwald concentration camp, operated the carousel for many years . There was also a monorail that ran around the top floor of the store. Hilariously, Mr. Harvey often released the live moneys into the store on slow shopping days and a popular salon where old ladies had their hair dyed and styled in bizarre blue, purple, and pink coiffures. From Wikipedia: "The original Harvey's department store was opened by Fred Harvey in 1942 at the corner of 6th Avenue North and Church Street. The site was the former home of a post-Reconstruction Nashville retailer, Lebeck Brothers/Denton & Company, which rose to prominence in the 1870s. When the Lebeck Brothers property became available due to the store's closing, Fred Harvey founded Harveys department store on the property. The store expanded to eventually cover the entire block of Church Street from 6th Avenue to 5th Avenue. The store brought the first escalators to middle Tennessee and the decor featured several carousel horses which had been salvaged from Glendale Park, a local amusement park that closed during the Great Depression. The store was also known for its lavish Christmas decorations as well as the annual nativity scene in Centennial park. Harvey's was in the news for the Nashville sit-in demonstrations at the lunch counter, an important part of the Civil Rights history. This also happened at Woolworths on 5th Avenue .> The original Harvey's store closed in January 1984 and was sadly torn down to make way for the current surface parking lot. Cain-Sloan in the 50s was adjacent to Harvey's at 5th and Church (St. Cloud's Corner). Cain-Sloan was much older than Harvey's opening in 1903, co-founded by Paul Lowe Sloan, Pat Cain and John E. Cain. The store was built new for Cain-Sloan Department Store rather than occupying an older building. Regretfully, there is next to no documentation of what existed on the site previously other than old photographs of questionable identity. 100+ years old Nashville downtown on Church Street is mostly lost. I particularly remember Cain Sloan personally, as my grandmother worked there from the late 1940s and ran the post office in the new store until about 1975. Cain-Sloan was different because the older building was open from floor to floor and heights were very tall. At 5th Avenue, the interior was 4 stories tall! Very narrow escalators were paired in the middle and the two elevators were small and had a uniformed operator (regrettably, always an older black gentleman, but that was the times). The floors stepped back in tiers in the narrow central sales area, women' s foundations, the smallest floor, 3rd home item sales, 2nd men's clothing, and main floor hats, gloves, perfumes, etc. The main entrance was on 5th and an annex was was on the actual corner at Church which had women and children's clothing and shoes and a furrier. When I needed shoes as a young child, mom always took me there to get Red Goose shoes . You got to pull a mechanical goose's neck and got a plastic golden egg with toys and candy in it. What was really bad though was the sales person fluoroscoped your feet to insure the fit. As the clerk was not medically trained, bot the child and the clerk were exposed to big doses of radiation (the machine did not take plates but stayed on). Cain-Sloan built a new store across church in 1961 in which they had an animated "Bunnyland" display and Breakfast with Santa. Young ladies could take classes in "White Gloves And Party Manners." Harvey's bought and expanded into the old Cain-Sloan building. The later Cain-Sloan store was demolished and used as a surface parking lot until Tony G. built his 505 tower on the site. The third major department store, Castner-Knotts, was at the corner of Capitol Boulevard and Church Street across from the library now and adjacent to the small park Tony G. covets. The Caster-Knott Building was built in 1906 for Charles Castner and William Knott's Castner-Knott Dry Goods Company. Founded in 1898, the store moved from its original location on 5th Avenue in what was the start of the city's westward expansion along Church Street. At that time, Caster-Knott was a single five story building with a 111-foot front at 618 Church street. Castner-Knott leased a portion of the building at 616 Church which previously was Armstrond's Department Store in 1933, a separate five story building constructed in 1911, with 28 feet fronting Church Street and as deep as the 618 Church building at 146 feet, adjacent to Capitol Boulevard. The top two floors were connected between 618 and 616 for Caster-Knott in 1936, the bottom three floors were connected in 1958-1959 and a small addition on the rear was added in 1975. Castner-Knott 's historic flagship store went out of business in 1996. The building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1999. Sears, of course, did not have a Nashville origin, as did the other three, but it had a major presence at the corner of 8th Avenue N. and Church Street next to the Paramount Theatre, where the new courthouse is now under construction. Part of lot 150, in the original town of Nashville, surveyed and plated in 1784, the southeast corner of Church Street at 8th Avenue North was first owned by John Boyd at the corner of Spring Street (Church) and Spruce Street (8th). In 1896 Victor E. Shwab, and his sister Augusta Shwab Dickel, bought the narrow lot where Sears would build a store; the property leased for twenty years from April 1, 1936 through April 1, 1956. The Shwab owners built for Sears, a a five story and basement mercantile building, with a mezzanine floor. At the end of the lease, Sears, moved a few blocks away, on Lafayette Street at 7th Ave (now Nashville Rescue Mission). After Sears moved from Church Street, the Shwabs leased to various tenant including National Stores (1957,) Ben Franklin store (1968), Gold & Silver Jewelers of Nashvilleand eventually, the State of Tennessee as an office building. All of these majors eventually opened suburban branches in Nashville malls and shopping centers, but those are also gone now. Closed and reused or swallowed by other department store chains like Dillard's, Peebles and Macy's. Sears, of course, in in process of disappearing nationally. There were many, many smaller store on Church and the Avenues too. Here is a partial list of the central part of Church in the 50s. 6th to7th east side: Candyland, Dorris Jewelry, Krystal, Shyer's Jewelry, Flagg Brothers Shoes, Baker'sLadies Shoes, Weinstein Jewelry, Loews Vendome Theatre, 1st American Bank, White Leather Co., Kay Jewelers, H.G.Hill's, Joy's Florist; west side Castner Knott, Holiday's Shoes, Chesters Ladies Co., Barton's Ladies Clothing, National Shirt Store. From 6th to 5h: Harvey's, Cain-Sloan, the Tennessee Theatre, the Jewel Shop, McKendree Church and the new Cain-Sloan site. From 5th to 4th west side: Gus Meyer , Petway Reavis, the Maxwell House; east side: First Presbyterian , Halmak Store (Cohen Bldg.), Princess Theatre and several small business slated to be demolished for the L&C tower in 1954. By no means was shopping limited to Church Street, Dozens of stores lined the Avenues as well, too many to cover here but here are the most remembered...7th Avenue N. (north) : Chandlers Shoes, Grace's fashions, Crosskeys Restaurant, Bookworld 6th Avenue N. (north): Joseph Frank & Son Shoes, Knickerbocker Theatre, Florsheim Shoes, Levy's Clothier, and the Luggage Store. 5th Avenue N. (north): Feldman's, F.W. Woolworth's, McLellan's, Burt's Shoes and Montgomery Ward's and Loveman's. As you can now must realize, downtown shopping was a huge deal with more stores in a few blocks than later malls every had. Sidewalks were packed and nights were just as active with restaurants and entertainment. Around holidays, shops and department stores stayed open beyond their regular hours to allow patrons to shop until as late as ten o'clock. But all of this vitality disappeared after the 70s with Metro trying everything to stop the retail exodus. Fulton's Folly was a much derided rebuilding of the street in a meandering brick pavement which lasted a few years until the tore it up and restored the street to a one way straight configuration. They tried to get people back with a mall called Church Street Center, which quickly failed and now is the site of the Library building. Buildings were torn down and replaced. The grand and beautiful old Victorian Watkins building was razed for a W.T. Grant's store. With the new century, life returns to Church Street with new residential towers built, more even now as we on this forum watch our new downtown grow. As a treat I finally found the last photo, which is of the old Victorian businesses on Church (1956) to be demolished for the construction of the new L&C tower
  10. This is Castle Gwynn (White Castle) the home of Nashville photographer Mike Freeman and the crown jewel of the Tennessee Renaissance Faire. It is based on a Welsh castle, Castle Coch (Red Castle) in Cardiff, Wales (first two photos). I have been involved in helping Michael build fulfill his vision since the first tower was started in 1980; it is five stories high and the first-floor kitchen is the crowning glory. It took Master mason Kenneth Canady two years and 14,000 bricks to make the 60 arches that are in the kitchen on the first floor of this tower. Work on the second tower began in 1985. I am very pleased to have made the architectural documents for the center masonry gateway between the two towers and provide the sketch for the distinctive grand stair up to it. It was a challenge to design as the pitch of the tall roof element is 12 in 2. All of the roof, including the magnificent "dunce caps" of the main tower are heavy gauge copper. Like its European counterparts, Castle Gwynn is built to last for centuries. One of the most interesting details was designing a working timber portcullis for the entrance arch. Castle Gwynn is sited on the Freeman estate and commands spectacular views towards Murfreesboro; in fact in all directions. It was a great pleasure working with Michael for so many years and watching the castle grow more impressive year after year. I also designed the small timbered gatehouse which served initially as the ticketing facility for the annual Renaissance Faire as you approach the castle grounds. I have fond memories participating both with early SCA involvement and as a vendor in the Faire. It is prominently noticeable from the interstate highway I-840, which created a high cliff cut within yards of the castle after annexing several acres of the property, which required that the Faire be relocated to the new site across the road in front of the castle. The Faire activities , including armored jousts takes place there , but Castle Gwynn is is open for the faire visitors to tour. If you have never been, plan on it next Spring! One of the most exciting developments currently is a massive addition to the castle of a great hall with new towers that nearly doubles the size of the castle. You can see the roof of this new addition above the trees in the last photo.
  11. Chris, since you posted this great memory of the old Maxwell House Hotel, I am making it the next focus of my Old Treasures reports. THE MAXWELL HOUSE HOTEL 1859-1961 For over 100 years, The Maxwell House Hotel stood on the northeast corner of 4th Avenue N., and Church Street in the center of Nashville serving as the heart of the city's social and political life. Nashville's John Overton's son, Colonel John Overton Jr. built the hotel, which he named after the father of his wife, Harriet Maxwell Overton. Construction began in 1859 by slave laborers on a massive hotel designed by Isaiah Rogers. Only partially completed at the outbreak of the Civil war, the unfinished brick building served as as a barracks for the occupying Union garrison and both a prison and hospital for captured Confederates as Nashville was an occupied city from 1862 to the end of the war. Several Confederate prisoners were killed when a staircase collapsed in September of 1863. There is also a tale murder of a Southern belle and a Union guard during the war, killed in a jealous rage by his brother, also a guard, who was subsequently killed by the collapse of the staircase while transporting the bodies. Stories of them haunting the hotel was a popular tale. In 1866, though the hotel rooms of the building were unfinished, the public areas were in use and Nathan Bedford Forrest , the famous Confederate calvary General was inducted into the newly formed secret vigilante society the Ku Klux Klan. During the recovery of the Union occupation, The KKK held its first national meeting at the hotel in April 1867. Nashville residents were dubious of the completion of the building as a grand hotel and dubbed it "Overton's Folly"; however, with funding from his father's financial wealth, he completed construction and opened the hotel on September 22, 1869.. Built in what became known as the Men's Quarter of the city with the entrance facing on 4th Avenue N., the brick five story , 240 room hotel cost over $250,000, a tremendous sum, with innovations such as steam heat, gas lighting and bathrooms on each floor. As 4th Avenue was developing a notorious reputation for men's entertainment, a separate entrance was on Church Street to protect the reputation of lady guests. The main entrance opening into the two story lobby had eight Corinthian columns and led to an elegant lobby featuring mahogany cabinetry, brass fixtures, gilded mirrors, and multi-tiered chandeliers. A grand stair led to a ballustraded mezzanine up to the dining room. Off the lobby, were ladies’ and men’s parlors, billiard rooms, barrooms, shaving saloons and the concierge desk. The dining room featured typical fare of the time like venison, bear, mallard duck, pheasant, quail and even possum though elaborately prepared and served in an elegant and spacious dining room which also served as a ballroom. The hotel became famous eventually for its Christmas Feast through the 1890s renowned for such delicacies as Calf’s Head, Leg of Cumberland Black Bear, and Tennessee Opossum. Meals were included with the room at four dollars per day. George R. Calhoun, the brother of silversmith William Henry Calhoun, managed a jewelry store in the hotel and proudly displayed wares in the a lobby showcase. From its opening through the First World War among the famous hotel guests were Jane Addams, Sarah Bernhardt, William Jennings Bryan, Enrico Caruso, "Buffalo Bill" Cody, Thomas Edison, Henry Ford, Annie Oakley, William Sydney Porter (O. Henry), General Tom Thumb, Cornelius Vanderbilt, George Westinghouse, and Presidents Andrew Johnson, Rutherford B. Hayes, Grover Cleveland, Theodore Roosevelt, William McKinley, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson. Joel Cheek named his blended coffee that was served in its restaurant for the hotel, creating Maxwell House Coffee. President Theodore Roosevelt reportedly commented that the cup of coffee he drank was "good to the last drop". The statement was used for decades as the advertising slogan for Maxwell House coffee, which was served at and named after the hotel. On June 4, 1958, the Maxwell House suffered the first of two fires. There were no reported injuries and damage was over $50,000. The second blaze on Christmas day of 1961 completely gutted the hotel to a ruined shell which was demolished in 1962. From TSLA "Disasters in Tennessee: "On Christmas Night, 1961, the hotel caught fire and burned. The origin of the fire is unknown, but flames were first spotted on the 4th floor corridor. Within an hour the fire had spread to the 3rd and 5th floors and eventually through the roof. Between 60 and 70 people, both staff and guests, evacuated the hotel. The firemen on the scene eventually abandoned their efforts to save the hotel and instead attempted to prevent adjoining buildings from catching fire. At the time, Fire Marshal Dan Hicks stated that the building was insured for one million dollars, and the acting hotel manager, Robert Witt, estimated that the damages to the furnishings were $100,000. J. W. Roach, chief city building inspector, stated the owners would most likely have to tear down what was left and rebuild. However, the Maxwell House was never rebuilt, and all that remains now of the once-famous hotel is an historical marker."
  12. NASHVILLE'S VANISHED DOWNTOWN THEATRES Because movie theatres only had one screen when I was a kid, if you wanted mom and dad to take you to a movie you were aching to see, the first thing you did was look in the newspaper to see which theater was showing it and when. I know this probably sounds odd to all the younger folks , but if theatres back then were going to show more than one film on a specific day, they scheduled them since they only had the single auditorium. As a result, most of us old coots got to visit most if not all of Nashville's downtown theatres...it was also a good excuse for mom to go shopping while dad was at work. Most of these grand old venues were on Church Street or a block or so north of it. Here is a summary of those we loved and lost years ago. Before the rise of film in the early 20th century, Nashville, like other cities of its size, had a plethora of vaudeville and performance halls both for the white and black communities. Early film theatres were the same halls with the addition of a screen and projector...of course there was no sound other than that of piano and live musicians as they always had in vaudeville. I have not seen much in the way of documentation of these. On Fifth Avenue N., between the Arcade and Church Street and across from the 5 &10 cent store, were two early Nashville theatres. The Rex Theatre was opened prior to 1914. By 1950 it was operated by the Crescent Amusement Co. and closed by 1957. The present 30 story Fifth Third Center was built on the site in 1986 but then was the 3rd National Bank Building. The other was the Fifth Avenue Theatre at 218 Fifth Avenue N. The Fifth Avenue opened December 26, 1909. In 1950, the Crescent Amusement Co. took over operation and it finally closed in July of 1960. Of these two theatres, I have few personal memories other than passing them on the street. The old Princess Theatre at 511 Church Street was built as a vaudeville theater in 1917 that eventually changed over in the 1930’s to run movies exclusively. The Princess was part of the Crescent Theatre chain. The Cain-Sloan department store across Church Street acquired the closed property in 1951. A new Princess Theatre was built and reopened at 415 Church Street in 1949 In 1959, the Princess was remodeled for the then more modern technology and was renamed the Crescent, equipped with a 45-foot screen and stereophonic sound and 70mm projection. Reopening on Christmas Day 1959, it featured with an extended run of The Big Fisherman, followed by other long-runs in 1960 including Ben Hur and Spartacus. It was renamed again as the Crescent Cinerama with three panel Cinerama and 70mm Cinerama in 1964 with It’a A Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World, which I eagerly attended. Later in the 60s, it became part of the Loews Chain and the name Loews Crescent Cinerama was shortened to just the Loews. It was the last downtown theatre to close and the Loews was demolished in 1994 for the Viridian. Of Nashville's downtown theaters, the first to be built originally as a film theatre was the Knickerbocker Theatre, between Capitol Blvd and 6th Ave N., “William H. Wassman’s latest addition to the motion picture world, opened in downtown Nashville.” on March 22, 1916. Oddly, the Knickerbocker Theatre had two entrances and box offices, one at 210 Capitol Blvd and another at 205 6th Avenue North. Painted ivory, green, and gold it was claimed to be "altogether one of the handsomest establishments in the country.” The Knickerbocker had a $15,000 symphony organ and two Edison Super-Kinetoscopes. The opening feature film was Bessie Barriscale in “Bullets and Brown Eyes.” Nashville artist Otto Hylen designed elaborate birds-of-paradise frescoes for the auditorium walls. When I was a teenager, the Knickerbocker had ceased showing first run movies and showed B- rated classic horror movies as the H-Man and Frankenstein's Daughter. It closed in 1962 and was demolished for a parking garage in 1990. Another theatre of the same vintage was the Strand on 4th Avenue N., whether this was a conversion or a new theater building I have not been able to determine. It ran films throughout the 20s and into the 30s. As this was in the Men's Quarter's District, the stage (yes most theatres had stages) so there was most likely live vaudeville performance as well. I rather doubt this theatre lasted into the era of sound for films. The Crescent Amusement Company, one of the bigger theatre companies of the time, opened The Capitol Theatre on April 19, 1926 with Richard Dix in “Let’s Get Married” plus vaudeville acts. It burned in 1929, one of the hazards with the highly combustible film of the times. It was located at the corner of Church Street and 6th Avenue N. where the 11 story art deco Warner Building was erected. Loews Vendome at 615 Church Street originally was an opera house which opened on October 3, 1887. with two balconies and sixteen boxes. Loew's took over the hall in the mid-1920'sand had both Vaudeville acts and silent movies. In the evening of August 8, 1967, the theatre caught fire and the grand auditorium was heavily damaged. The surviving lobby space was leased as retail space until 1986 when it was finally demolished. The 1967 fire was not the first fire at the Loew’s Vendome, a previous fire occurred on January 2, 1902, caused by faulty electrical wiring in the upper boxes. Damages were between $35,000-$50,000.00, a huge sum in 1902. Repaired and remodeled Loews Vendome reopened on September 12th, 1902. The sixteen boxes were refinished in ivory and gold, the walls were painted with a red tint shading from pale rose to terra cotta. The vaudeville theater had a new ceiling mural, entitled “Love’s Awakening”, replaced “Aurora” destroyed by the fire. It reopened as a motion picture theatre on April 14th, 1915 (Banner). it was again remodeled and opened opened on March 22, 1920 (Tennessean) after a $100,000.00 upgrade for movie showing., though Vaudeville acts were still performed before the movies. accompanied by a new $20,000 organ. Nashville's downtown theatres had terrific ambiance, especially the Paramount, which opened as a movie only theater on November 14, 1930 at 727 Church Street. The Paramount had a grand three-manual console Wurlitzer organ that rose out of the floor on hydraulic lifts. A lighting show before the features show ran through a sequence of the night skies to sunrise while the organist played grand music and you could follow a bouncing ball on lyrics on-screen to sing along, while waiting for the show. A very unusual architectural feature in entering the theatre was that you entered at the level of the balcony on Church street due to the steep slope down to Commerce Street. Another point about these theatres in the 40s and 50s was that they had uniformed ushers to guide you to your seat. A lot of Nashville male teens earned extra money ushering or passing out handbills to passersby on Church Street promoting the current movie. It was sold to the Martin Theatre Chain in 1978 which operated it until it was demolished in the 80s. Built into the Warner Building's (1932) first floor at 533 Church Street was the largest and most modern downtown theatre, the Tennessee, which opened in 1952. The lobby was spacious and was designed in the height of 1950s Streamline Modern style. A very grand stair went up to the large balcony. The total seating capacity was 2,028, the largest downtown theatre. It holds a distinction in 1973 of hosting the only Grammy awards ceremony outside of Los Angeles or New York City. It was demolished in the 1980s to build the soviet style Cumberland Apartments. Sadly all of these grand venues succumbed to the convenience of the Nashville suburban theatres which I will cover in another post. However, in the suburbs was another class of movie showing, the drive-in's like Warner Park, Bel-Aire, the Skyway, Colonial, Crescent or Montague. Of course these were open mainly in warm weather, but I remember watching shows on chilly Fall evenings as the parking spaces had heater units as well as speakers for your car. All in all, the movie experience was vastly different from the present multi-plex cinemas which we have now.
  13. PRINTERS ALLEY Originally the center of the city’s printing industry, first established in the 1830s and thriving by the end of the Civil War, Printer's Alley was home to thirteen publishers and printers, including early offices of the the Nashville Banner and The Tennessean. Down toward the river, Third Avenue (then College Street) was home to eight retail furniture stores. Cherry Street (now Fourth Avenue) was lined with saloons, billiard halls, barber shops, bath houses, restaurants and tobacconists. Cherry Street and the Alley behind it (now Printer's Alley), was known in the late nineteenth century as the Men’s Quarter as many gambling parlors and saloons were located here. No respectable woman dared venture into this area if she valued her reputation. The Maxwell House Hotel, which had its main entrance across on Cherry Street, provided a separate ladies’ entrance around the corner on Church Street, such was the notorious reputation of the Men's Quarter. Two Men’s Quarter saloon buildings survive on Fourth Avenue today, the Climax at 210 Fourth Avenue North (now part of the Dream Hotel) and the Southern Turf building at 212 Fourth Avenue North. With the enactment of Prohibition in 1909 , many businesses failed, some then businesses closed, but speakeasies continued to illegally operate new jazz clubs and bars until the repeal of prohibition on December 5, 1933. Bounded by Union Street to the north, Third Avenue to the east, Church Street to the south, and Fourth Avenue to the west, the Printer’s Alley Historic District encompasses fifteen commercial structures dating from 1874 to 1929. These are, in order of construction, Utopia Hotel (1891), Climax Saloon (1887), Southern Turf Saloon (1895), Ambrose Building (formerly Bruce Building, 1905), and Noel Block Garage (1926)and the U.S. Bank Building (1929) . Architectural styles of these buildings include Italianate, Romanesque Revival, Victorian Romanesque, Queen Anne, neoclassical, and Art Deco. Many cafes, saloons, gambling halls, speakeasies and clubs—including the famed Climax Club—sprang up to cater to the men of Nashville’s print shops as well as to judges, lawyers, politicians and other members of the city’s elite. Printer's Alley is narrow and lined with brick facades, cast-iron balconies, and foliage overhanging from window boxes. Many of neon signboards date to the 1940s. Recent attempts to revitalize the district have led to an influx of luxury hotels and other high-end services. Printer’s Alley was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977. Printer's Alley the notorious alley in downtown Nashville, Tennessee, between Third and Fourth Avenues, runs from Union Street to Commerce Street. The portion of the alley between Union and Church Street is the home of a nightclub district that dates back from the 1940s. It didn’t matter what you were looking for, you could find it in Printer’s Alley (Nashville’s dirty little secret). The city’s politicians and police protected the Alley even after the sale of liquor was outlawed in 1909. Hilary Howse, Nashville’s mayor at the time was asked by reporters if he protected the Alley’s establishments. “Protect them?” he answered. “ I do better than that, I patronize them.” In the 1940s, when Printer's Alley first became well known for its nightclubs and entertainment venues, sale of liquor in businesses for on site consumption was illegal in Nashville (and the state of Tennessee). Restaurants and clubs in Printer's Alley served liquor regardless, claiming it had been "brown bagged" by its patrons. More prominent patrons commonly kept their bottles in lockers or on shelves behind their favorite bar for safekeeping. It was generally understood that the police would "look the other way" and the Alley became infamous, even internationally so. Liquor by-the-drink was legalized in restaurants by the new Metropolitan government in 1968. Famed Printer's Alley clubs included Jimmy Hyde's Carousel Club, a jazz venue, the Voodoo Room, Skull's Rainbow Room and the Black Poodle Lounge...all frequented by artists like Chet Atkins, Floyd Cramer, Boots Randolph, Bob Moore, Brenton Banks, Buddy Harman and Hank Garland. Boots Randolph later purchased the Carousel. In 1998, club proprietor David "Skull" Schulman was tragically murdered while walking his beloved dogs by a robber, shortly before his club was due to open. The last printer to leave the Alley was Ambrose Printing Company in 1977. Printer's Alley was added to the National Register of Historic Places as a historic district in 1982. In the 40s and 50s, entertainers such as Waylon Jennings, Hank Williams and Dottie West could be found performing in the Alley. In the 1970s, superstars Paul McCartney, the Supremes, Hank Williams, Barbara Mandrell and Jimi Hendrix performed on the small stages of the Alley's clubs. In present day Nashville, the printers are long gone, but the ambiance, the flair and the long history of the Alley remains.
  14. A saddle is a double loin, rolled and tied and wrapped in fat, then cooked like a roast. Size varies with the animal species and age. I don't know the point of origin, but you might try this possum. Bear is greasy and not my favorite, roast coon is much better, like pork. Both of them you have to trim off every trace of fat as it is nasty tasting. You lard them with bacon. Fried snake and squirrel is mighty fine too. A polvrede is a dish with a peppery sauce.
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