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History of Iraq


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I was thinking that several of you might not know much about Iraq between the times of Mesopotamia and Hussein. Here is a brief overview. Fill in blanks with gasing Kurds, Iranians, etc.......

The Mongols distroyed Babylon in 1258 and the Mesopotamian region was a back water area in world affairs until the Ottomans conquered the region in 1534. The Ottomans named Baghdad as their provincial capital. In the area that is now Iraq, they set up separate provinces with Mosul as the capital of the north and Basra as the capital of the south. The three regions were autonimous of one another and din't like one another. During WWI, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Central Powers. An Anglo-Indian Force landed in Basra in November of 1914. That force moved further north towards, but was captured in the siege of Kut al-Amara in April 1916. In March of 1917 a larger force arrived in Basra and was able to capture Baghdad. At the end of the war, the British took control of the administration of Iraq. At first defacto and then later through League of Nations mandate. The British separated Kuwait from Iraq. The Iraqis always considered Kuwait as a part of Iraq. In 1920, the British founded Iraq. The British named King Faisal, Saudi Arabian Hashimite King, as the King of Iraq. The Iraqis considered this mandate to be veiled colonialism. The British had to fight a revolt. There is debate as to whether the British used poisonous gas, but there is no dabate that they used indiscriminate air power. In 1930, the Bristish granted independence with a treaty that included the retention of British troops for 30 years. With the death of King Kaisal in 1933, the country was taken over by the Iraqi military. During WWII, the British returned to protect the oil fields. The British remained until 1958 holding up a monarch and pro-British Prime Minsiter Nuri al-Said. At which time they were swept away by the military. In 1961, the British granted independence to Kuwait. The Iraqi leader General Kassem claimed it for Iraq. The British moved in troops to protect Kuwait. The incident was overtaken by a coup in Baghdad organized by the United States. The new leaders recognized the independence of Kuwait, but conflicts over the boundaries persisted. In 1979, Saddam Hussein seized power. Hussein saw the Islamic Revolution in Iran as an oportunity to invade Iran and did in September of 1980. He wanted to stiffle Islamic Fundimentalism. He was supported in this by the United States, Germany, Britain, and France. Of course in 1990, he invaded Kuwait. :shok:

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