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An object's density is defined as the ratio of mass to volume. Density is used across geology, physics, and many other physical sciences. The property also determines whether or not an object would float (known as buoyancy) in water, which has a unit density of 1 gram per cubic centimeter (g/cm^{3})—the standard units for density measurements.
Steps
Part 1
Part 1 of 2:Finding the Values of Your Variables
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1Measure the mass of your equipment before starting. If you are calculating densities of liquids or gasses especially, you will need to know the mass of the container. This way, you can subtract the mass from the total mass when you measure the object’s mass.^{[1] X Research source }
 Place your empty beaker, jar, or other container onto a scale, and write down its mass in grams.
 Some scales allow you to “tare” the weight. This means once you have the container on the scale, you will press “tare”, and the scale will set the new mass equal to zero. This subtracts out the mass of anything on the scale for you.

2Place your object on the scale to find its mass. Either by itself, if it’s a solid, or in its container, for liquids and gasses, measure the mass using your scale. Record the mass in grams, subtracting the mass of any container you have used.^{[2] X Research source }Advertisement

3Convert the mass to grams if it is in another unit. Some scales will measure in units other than grams. If yours will not measure in grams, you may need to convert the units by multiplying the value by a conversion value.
 1 ounce is approximately equal to 28.35 grams. 1 pound is about 453.59 grams.
 In these cases, you will multiply the mass of your object by the conversion factor of 28.35 to convert ounces to grams or 453.59 for pounds to grams.

4Find the volume of the object in cubic centimeters. If you are fortunate enough to have a rectangular solid, you can simply measure the length, width, and height of the object in centimeters. You will then multiply the 3 digits together for the volume.^{[3] X Research source }

5Determine the volume for nonrectangular solids. For liquids or gasses, you will need to use a graduated cylinder or beaker to record the volume. For solids in other odd shapes, you will either need to use the right equation or submerge it in water to calculate the volume.
 1 milliliter is equal to 1 cubic centimeter. This makes liquid and gas conversions quite simple!
 There are different mathematical formulas for finding the volume of a rectangle, a cylinder, a pyramid, and so on.
 If the object is solid and nonporous with no regular dimensions to measure, such as a jagged rock, you can calculate its volume by immersing it in water and measuring the volume of water it displaces. By Archimedes' principle, an object displaces a volume of liquid equal to its own volume. Simply subtract the original volume of the liquid from the combined volume of liquid with the solid in it.^{[4] X Research source }
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Part 2
Part 2 of 2:Using the Density Equation
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1Divide the object's mass by its volume. Using a calculator, or by hand, if you are feeling adventurous, simply divide the mass in grams by the volume in cubic centimeters. For a 20gram mass that takes up a volume of 5 cubic centimeters, the density is 4 grams per cubic centimeter.^{[5] X Research source }

2Simplify your answer to the appropriate number of significant digits. Realworld values are not typically as clean cut as you might find in word problems. Therefore, when you divide real mass values by volumes, you are likely to get a long number with many decimal places.
 Consult your teacher or whomever the calculation is for to ask how many significant figures are needed.
 Usually rounding to 2 or 3 digits past the decimal place is plenty accurate. Therefore, a number like 32.714907 could be rounded down to 32.71 or 32.715 g/cm^{3}.

3Evaluate the meaning of the density. Typically density of an object is related to the density of water (1.0 g/cm^{3}). If your object’s density is greater than 1.0, it will sink in water. Otherwise, it will float.
 The same relationship will be true for other liquids. For example, when you try to mix olive oil and water, the oil will rise to the top since it is less dense than water.
 Specific gravity is another ratio that relates to density. Often it is the density of an object divided by the density of water (or another substance). The units cancel each other out, so you are just left with a number that represents relative masses. The number is often used in chemistry to determine concentrations of a substance in a solution.^{[6] X Research source }
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Community Q&A

QuestionWhat's the point of finding the density of an object?Community AnswerKnowing how dense an object is will tell you whether or not that object will be able to float in a certain liquid. It can also tell you how much something weighs. Lastly, it can also tell you whether or not there are any impurities in a certain object, such as a crystal.

QuestionHow do you find the density of an object if it doesn't tell you the volume or the mass?Community AnswerWithout the volume or the mass of an object, you can't find the density.

QuestionHow do I find the density of a rock?Community AnswerPut it on a weight scale and see how much it weighs. Then put it in a graduated cylinder and measure how much it made the water go up. Do mass over volume, and you get the density.

QuestionWhich instrument do I use for measuring density?DonaganTop AnswererUse a weight scale and something for volume, such as a ruler or a waterdisplacement kit.

QuestionHow can a liquid's density be found?DonaganTop AnswererWeigh a container of known volume. Fill it with the liquid. Weigh the container and liquid. Subtract the container's weight from the total weight just measured. That gives you the liquid's weight. Divide the liquid's volume into its weight to find the liquid's density.

QuestionHow can I find volume?Community AnswerVolume can be found in two ways. The easy way for most people is to measure the length, width, and height. After measuring, multiply the three measurements and there you have it: the volume. Another way is simple too but it is like lab work. In order to find the volume using that method, you will need a graduated cylinder. Once you have it, pour water into the cylinder. For easier measurement, pour the water at a whole number. The next step is to place your object in water and you'll notice the water displacement. Now subtract the original water level from the new water level and the resulting number is your volume!

QuestionAs a liquid is heated, not up to boiling, how does the motion of its particles change?Community AnswerIts molecules move faster than normal. So therefore, the speed is different in the molecules.If it keeps getting heated up, it will turn into a gas.

QuestionWhat is the density of the earth?DonaganTop AnswererThe average density of the Earth is just over 5½ grams per cubic centimeter. That makes it the densest planet in the solar system.

QuestionWhich measurements are needed to determine the density of a solid?DonaganTop AnswererYou would need the weight (mass), and divide that by the volume.

QuestionHow do I find the density of an irregular object?DonaganTop AnswererFind the volume through water displacement. Weigh the object, then divide its volume into its weight.
Tips
Things You'll Need
 Balance or spring scale
 Ruler or measuring tape
 Calculator
 Graduated cylinder (for powders, liquids, or gasses)
References
 ↑ https://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K12/airplane/fluden.html
 ↑ https://sciencing.com/calculatemassweight6399639.html
 ↑ https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/topics/zjbg87h/articles/z3jrxfr
 ↑ https://sciencing.com/dovolumeobject6199021.html
 ↑ https://serc.carleton.edu/mathyouneed/density/index.html
 ↑ https://serc.carleton.edu/mathyouneed/density/index.html
About This Article
To find the density of an object, start by determining the object's mass and volume. Then, divide the mass by the volume to find the object's density. Remember to write your answer in grams per cubic centimeter. If your answer is long, you can round it down to 2 or 3 digits past the decimal place! If you want to learn how to find an object's volume if it's an irregular shape, keep reading the article!